Genetic Stock Structure of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Nesting Populations Across the Pacific Islands
Peter H. Dutton, Michael P. Jensen, Karen Frutchey, Amy Frey, Erin LaCasella, George H. Balazs, Jennifer Cruce, Alden Tagarino, Richard Farman, and Miri Tatarata, 451
Abstract: More than two decades have passed since the first studies documenting genetic population structure of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) were published. Since then many more have followed and characterization of the genetic structure of green turtle rookeries now covers most of the global distribution of the species, benefitting conservation of this threatened species worldwide. However, important data gaps still exist across a large part of the western and central Pacific Ocean (WCPO). This large area is made up of hundreds of scattered islands and atolls of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia, most of which are remote and difficult to access. In this study, we assessed stock structure of green turtles throughout the WCPO using mitochondrial (mt) DNA from 805 turtles sampled across 25 nesting locations. We examined whether sequencing longer fragments (770 bp) of the control region increases resolution of stock structure and used genetic analysis to evaluate level of demographic connectivity among island nesting populations in the WCPO. We identified a total of 25 haplotypes characterized by polymorphism within the 770 bp sequences, including five new variants of haplotypes that were indistinguishable with shorter 384 bp reads from previous studies. Stock structure analysis indicated that rookeries separated by more than 1,000 km were significantly differentiated from each other, but neighboring rookeries within 500 km showed no genetic differentiation. Results presented in this paper establish that sequencing of longer fragments (770 bp) of the control region does in some cases increase resolution and that there are at least seven independent stocks in the region.
Predominance of Unbalanced Gene Flow from Western to Central North Pacific Colonies of the Black-Footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes)
Haruko Ando, Lindsay Young, Maura Naughton, Hajime Suzuki, Tomohiro Deguchi and Yuji Isagi, 309
Abstract: The Black-Footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) breeds in two remote regions, approximately 4,000 km apart, in the North Pacific. The population in the central North Pacific region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), which contains >95% of the total population, is currently stable, although concerns exist about future declines. In contrast, the population in the western North Pacific (Izu and Ogasawara Islands in Japan) is rapidly increasing, and the breeding areas are expanding. To estimate possible gene flow caused by dispersal between populations, we performed genetic analysis on six colonies of Black-Footed Albatross using 10 microsatellite markers. The central and western North Pacific populations were genetically differentiated. However, an estimation of migrants per generation indicated directional dispersal from the western to the central North Pacific. In particular, the population on Kure Atoll, the westernmost atoll in the Hawaiian Islands in the central North Pacific, exhibited weak genetic differentiation from the western North Pacific populations, suggesting frequent immigration from the western North Pacific. The recent expansion of the western North Pacific population may be due to an increase in returning individuals, which may be caused by increased breeding success rates and/or survival rates. Range-wide and long-term monitoring of the Black-Footed Albatross population using genetic markers may help to uncover dispersal dynamics of this highly mobile but philopatric albatross species and to make appropriate conservation decisions in light of environmental changes.
Special Issue: Tenth East-West Philosophers’ Conference, “Value and Values: Economics and Justice in an Age of Global Interdependence”
SPECIAL ISSUE ARTICLES
Retrospective on the Global Reach of the East-West Philosophers’ Conferences (Plenary Address at the Tenth East-West Philosophers’ Conference, May 16, 2011)
Marietta Stepanyants (Stepaniants), 829
Comparative philosophy has been institutionalized in different ways due to the East-West Philosophers’ Conferences started in Honolulu in 1939. The tradition of the EWPC is dynamic, sensitive to the changes and demands of the times. It moved ahead considerably from the initial “synthesis” approach to an examination of specific philosophical issues and themes that could be addressed from the background of different cultural perspectives. The EWPC might justly be recognized as the genuine forerunner of the dialogue of civilizations.
Remembering Professor David Jinadasa Kalupahana
Professor David Jinadasa Kalupahana (1936–2014)
Asanga Tilakaratne, 520
David Kalupahana and the Field of Early Buddhism
Wimal Dissanayake, 523
Out of the Ge-stell?: The Role of the East in Heidegger’s das andere Denken
Lin Ma, Jaap van Brakel, 527
Heidegger has notoriously named the essence of the technological world the Ge-stell (framework, enframing). Here, we reveal that yet another term, Gestellnis, figures in some of his writings from the 1970s. According to Heidegger, as the essence of the Ge-stell, Gestellnis shows a way toward the fore-garden of Ereignis (appropriating event). In opposing the Ge-stell mode of comportment toward beings, Heidegger glimpses the promise of the other thinking, which seems to be useless from the perspective of traditional metaphysical thinking. In characterizing this mode of thinking, he resorts to Zhuangzi’s parables of uselessness (wuyong 无用). One way of stepping out of the Ge-stell is to make central the comportment toward beings as embodied in non-metaphysical art. Heidegger designates this as das andere Denken (the other thinking). In charting this course, Heidegger turns toward ancient Asian traditions insofar as they remain uncontaminated by current planetary-interstellar world conditions, which for him epitomize the absence of the dichotomy of appearance and essence. From Heidegger’s standpoint, before the Western tradition gains maturity through its own self-transformation, the allegedly inevitable event of East-West dialogue can only be anticipated. However, at the ontic level East Asian sources have undeniably played a role in his search for ways out of the Ge-stell.
Patience and Perspective
Nicolas Bommarito, 269
In much of Western philosophy, patience tends to be either overlooked or described as being non-moral and valuable only instrumentally. This is in stark contrast with its central role in Buddhist ethics. Offered here is a Buddhist-inspired account of how patience can be a moral virtue. It is argued that virtuous patience involves having a perspective on the place of our own desires and values among others and a sense of their relative importance.
David R. McCann
Editor’s Note, 9
Special Feature: Contemporary Korean American Writing
Guest Editors: Heinz Insu Fenkl and Minsoo Kang
Heinz Insu Fenkl
Lessons from My Grandfather, 19
Our Missing Half, 23
Purnima Bose and Laura E. Lyons
Life Writing and Corporate Personhood
Purnima Bose and Laura E. Lyons, v
This introduction outlines different manifestations of corporate personhood, including advertising, skinvertising, activist corporate impersonation, and the equation of corporations with celebrity CEOs. We contextualize corporate personhood in relation to recent attempts to claim rights for fetuses, along with more progressive articulations of personhood in various environmental and animal rights campaigns.