The Contemporary Pacific, vol. 12, no. 1 (2000)

TCP logoARTICLES

Implementing Treaty Settlements via Indigenous Institutions: Social Justice and Detribalization in New Zealand, p. 1
Marilyn E Lashley
Abstract: This study examines treaty settlement as a mechanism for providing social justice and incorporating Maori people into mainstream New Zealand society by improving economic and social well-being. Articles II and III of the Treaty of Waitangi (respectively, collectively held private assets and citizenship benefits and privileges), are described and discussed, along with settlement of claims of breached treaty rights, social policy targeted to Maori, and changes in economic and social well-being from 1976 to 1998. The fundamental proposition is that all Maori are harmed by the legacy of dispossession and marginalization and, therefore, all Maori are entitled to social justice. The central question addresses the role of the state in providing redress to all indigenous New Zealanders, collectives and individuals, for breaches of both Article II and Article III treaty rights. However, urbanization and detribalization limit access to social justice, and the benefits of treaty settlements have yet to trickle down to individual Maori households. Changes in aggregate indicators of well-being indicate modest improvement in the first decade, and thereafter Maori people experience greater and increasing income inequality, unemployment, and poverty than other population subgroups. To explain these findings, the following questions are addressed: What is the relationship between detribalization and access to treaty settlement assets? What strategies should the government undertake to provide redress (to individual Maori as well as tribal collectives) for breaches of Article III treaty rights?
Keywords: detribalization, Maori, New Zealand social policy, social justice, treaty settlement, Waitangi

Fact or Fable? The Consequences of Migration for Educational Achievement and Labor Market Participation, p. 57
Cluny Macpherson, Richard Bedford, and Paul Spoonley
Abstract: Throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, people moved from the Pacific Islands to New Zealand in the expectation that their children would enjoy improved life chances, which they believed would follow from improved quality and availability of formal education in New Zealand. The greater educational opportunities would be translated into improved opportunities in the labor market in the form of higher incomes, higher levels of labor market participation, and upward occupational mobility. This paper explores the origins of these beliefs about education and uses statistical data to establish whether the migrants’ expectations were realized.
Keywords: education, labor, migration, New Zealand, Samoa

Reconciling Ethnicity and Nation: Contending Discourses in Fiji’s Constitutional Reform, p. 83
Robert Norton
Abstract: The process of Fiji’s recent constitutional reform highlighted the dilemma of reconciling a principle of indigenous Fijian paramountcy with an imperative to shape a multiethnic nation for which non-Fijian, particularly Indian, contributions have long been crucial. The article addresses this dilemma in a discussion of the dominant themes in public discourse about constitutional change, and the relation of these themes to the values, pressures, and opportunities of three arenas: ethnic, national, and international. Three contrasting paradigms for the nation are identified: a universalist vision grounded in international human rights ideology, an exclusionary Fijian ethnonationalism affirmed most strongly in the army coups of 1987 and their aftermath, and an interethnic accommodation and partnership in which leading Fijian chiefs continue to have a stabilizing and legitimating function. The last model prevailed in the constitutional reform, demonstrating a continuity with trends in the shaping of political culture during colonial and early postcolonial times. The story of the constitutional reform is in part the saga of how the ethnonationalist coup maker who became prime minister, Sitiveni Rabuka, has tried to remake himself as a national leader. In the crucial role he eventually assumed as overseer of reform, he depended on support from chiefs and their councils. The paper concludes, against much of the postcoup literature on Fiji, that over the long term the major significance of the chiefs in the national political arena is not as a privileged “vested interest” group obstructing a solution to the problem of establishing a viable democratic polity, but as part of this solution.
Keywords: chiefs, constitutional reform, ethnicity, Fiji, nation, political change, Rabuka

Festival Mania, Tourism, and Nation-Building in Fiji: The Case of the Hibiscus Festival, 1956-1970, p. 123
Claus Bossen
Abstract: Why did festivals proliferate in all urban centers in Fiji in the late 1950s and 1960s to the extent that one official talked about “festival mania”? Today the Hibiscus Festival in Suva, the Sugar Festival in Lautoka, the Bula Festival in Nadi, and various other festivals have become natural parts of the national culture. However, when the festivals were started they were constructed as tourist attractions that should lure tourists to Fiji. Thus, the development of the festivals from being constructed tourist events to become part of the national culture points to some of the unexpected ways in which tourism links up with national identity. From 1950 to independence in 1970 three parallel processes of change took place in Fiji: Tourism became a major industry thus alleviating the economic dependence on sugar-production, urbanization created a new urban space for social interaction and public discussion, and a national identity had to be created as it became apparent that Fiji would cease to be a British colony and become independent. In this paper I will discuss how these processes of change condensed into “festival mania” focusing on the years from 1950 to independence in 1970.
Keywords: festivals, Fiji, national identity, tourism

Transforming the Insider-Outsider Perspective: Postcolonial Fiction from the Pacific, p. 155
Sandra Tawake
Abstract: Historically, the perspective assumed in writing about the Pacific until 1970 presented Pacific peoples through European eyes in roles of spectators and objects of European desires. After the beginning of what Paul Sharrad called an “authentic” Pacific literature, the perspective shifted to one that viewed life through the eyes of Pacific peoples. For example, “Parade” by Patricia Grace can be read as a trope of the transforming power of the insider perspective. When the insider perspective is examined in postcolonial terms, it is clear that “there can hardly be such a thing as an essential inside that can be homogeneously represented by all insiders” (Minhha 1995, 218). The realities of contemporary writers from the Pacific illustrate the complications in claiming privilege for Pacific voices because they are native. New fiction from the Pacific during the 1990s exhibits its postcolonial identity through the perspectives it adopts, through innovations in language use, and through its ability to transform traditional images of society and culture into images of postcoloniality.
Keywords: Alan Duff, contemporary Pacific fiction, Sia Figiel, Witi Ihimaera, Maori writers, postcolonial writing, Samoan writers, John Pule

DIALOGUE

The Pacific Islands and the Globalization Agenda, p. 178
Stewart Firth

POLITICAL REVIEWS

Micronesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999, p. 194
Samuel F McPhetres, Joakim Peter, Donald R Shuster (Guam), Donald R Shuster (Palau), Julianne M Walsh

Polynesia in Review: Issues and Events, 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999, p. 221
Frédéric Angleviel, Kerry James, Kelihiano Kalolo, Stephen Levine, Margaret Mutu, Asofou So’o, Karin von Strokirch

BOOK REVIEWS

The Sky Travellers: Journeys in New Guinea 1938-1939, by Bill Gammage, p. 258
Reviewed by Stewart Firth

My Gun, My Brother: The World of the Papua New Guinea Colonial Police, by August Kituai, p. 260
Reviewed by Peter Hempenstall

Another Way: The Politics of Constitutional Reform in Post-Coup Fiji, by Brij V Lal, p. 263
Reviewed by Vijay Naidu

The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders, edited by Donald Denoon with Stewart Firth, Jocelyn Linnekin, Malama Meleisea, and Karen Nero, p. 266
Reviewed by Jacqueline Leckie

He Served: A Biography of Macu Salato, by Robert C Kiste, p. 269
Reviewed by Antony Hooper

Imperial Benevolence: Making British Authority in the Pacific Islands, by Jane Samson, p. 270
Reviewed by Barrie Macdonald

Changing Their Minds: Tradition and Politics in Contemporary Fiji and Tonga, by Rory Ewins, p. 273
Reviewed by Kerry James

Common Worlds and Single Lives: Constituting Knowledge in Pacific Societies, edited by Verena Keck, p. 275
Reviewed by Marta Rohatynskyj

Theorizing Self in Samoa: Emotions, Genders, and Sexualities, by Jeannette Marie Mageo, p. 277
Reviewed by Karen L Ito

Bridging Mental Boundaries in a Postcolonial Microcosm: Identity and Development in Vanuatu, by William F S Miles, p. 280
Reviewed by Ron Adams

Modern Papua New Guinea, edited by Laura Zimmer-Tamakoshi, p. 281
Reviewed by Kathleen Barlow

After Moruroa: France in the South Pacific, by Nic Maclellan and Jean Chesnaux, and Moruroa and Us: Polynesians’ Experiences during Thirty Years of Nuclear Testing in the French Pacific, by Peter de Vries and Han Seur, p. 284
Reviewed by David A Chappell

Bougainville 1988-98: Five Searches for Security in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea, by Karl Claxton, p. 287
Reviewed by Eugene Ogan

Dreadlocks in Oceania, edited by Sudesh Mishra and Elizabeth Guy, p. 289
Reviewed by Christina Thompson

Being Ourselves for You: The Global Display of Cultures, by Nick Stanley, p. 291
Reviewed by Adria Imada

MEDIA REVIEWS

Wayfinders: A Pacific Odyssey, p. 294
Reviewed by Sam Low

Lieweila: A Micronesian Story, p. 296
Reviewed by Peter Black

Kasis Road, p. 299
Reviewed by Lissant Bolton

Mabo: Life of an Island Man,p. 300
Reviewed by Sonia Smallacombe

CONTRIBUTORS

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