Journal of World History, vol. 14, no. 3 (2003)

ARTICLES

An Orientalist in the Orient: Richard Garbe’s Indian Journey, 1885–1886
Kaushik Bagchi
pp. 281-325
Abstract: Richard Garbe, a German professor of Indology, lived and studied in India for one year in the 1880s. Using Garbe’s travel journal, a novel he wrote on India, and other writings, this article seeks to locate German Orientalism and Orientalists vis-à-vis Edward Said’s critique of Orientalism and the debates arising from his critique. Although Germany was not a major colonial power, this study finds that German Orientalism reflected and benefited from European power, even if it did not contribute overtly to its growth.

Encountering the World: China and Its Other(s) in Historical Narratives, 1949–1989
Q. Edward Wang
pp. 327-358
Abstract: This article critically examines historical discourses in modern China and their complex relations with the outside world, most notably theWest. It delineates three noticeable changes in the twentieth century and concentrates on the period 1949–1989. Chinese experimentation with modern historiography began shortly after Western powers defeated China in the late nineteenth century. These defeats forced Chinese scholars to forsake the traditional sinocentric conception of the world and accept a new worldview characterized by a West–China dichotomy. After 1917, however, the triumph of Bolshevism in Russia offered another alternative to Chinese searching for modernization. As a result, China’s cultural relationship with the larger world changed from a dichotomous to a triangular relationship. During China’s Republican period (1912–1949), liberal historians constructed a historical narrative modeled on the modern West and regarded Marxist historical theory as an alien Other. After the foundation of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, however, when Marxist historiography gained orthodox status, the West was turned into the alien Other. After the Cultural Revolution and especially in the so-called “culture fever” of the 1980s, a younger generation of historians unsatisfied with the dogmatic application of Marxist theory in historical study turned again to the West for inspiration. In renewing their interest in Western historiography, these historians used the Western Other to challenge the official Marxist historiography authorized by the government. In doing so, they formed a counterdiscourse in historical narrative that (together with the emerging sociocultural history ) reshaped historical practice in the People’s Republic of China.

Revolution in Education: China and Cuba in Global Context, 1957–1976
Yinghong Cheng and Patrick Manning
pp. 359-391
Abstract: Revolutionary movements in China and Cuba gained worldwide attention for their attempts to restructure education in the light of new social values. China’s Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) and Cuba’s Revolutionary Offensive (1968–1970), while developed separately, experimented with remarkably similar programs of integration of work with study that largely dismantled the preceding educational systems. Here the authors argue that these communist campaigns also fit within a worldwide postcolonial critique of education seen as privileging urban and elite values. The Chinese and Cuban experiments were abandoned as failures, but the aspiration they expressed still exists and has been echoed in many other places.

BOOK REVIEWS

Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Conee Ornelas, eds. The Cambridge World History of Food
Reviewed by Andrew Dalby
pp. 393-396

David D. Perlmutter. Visions of War: Picturing War from the Stone Age to the Cyber Age
Reviewed by Lee T. Wyatt III
pp. 396-399

Warren I. Cohen. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World
Reviewed by Charles Holcombe
pp. 399-401

J. K. J. Thompson. Decline in History: The European Experience
Reviewed by Noel Parker
pp. 402-406

Ann Buckley, ed. Hearing the Past: Essays in Historical Ethnomusicology and the Archaeology of Sound
Reviewed by Fred Spier
pp. 407-408

Pekka Masonen. The Negroland Revisited: Discovery and Invention of the Sudanese Middle Ages
Reviewed by David H. Groff
pp. 408-410

Peter Russell. Prince Henry “the Navigator”: A Life
Reviewed by Isabel Morgado S. e Silva
pp. 411-414

Peter Hoffenberg. An Empire on Display: English, Indian, and Australian Exhibitions from the Crystal Palace to the Great War
Reviewed by Sung Choi
pp. 415-418

Tony Ballantyne. Orientalism and Race: Aryanism in the British Empire
Reviewed by Carolyn Neel
pp. 418-420

Marcello Carmagnani. Constitucionalismo y Orden Liberal. América Latina, 1850–1920
Reviewed by M. C. Mirow
pp. 421-423

Joshua A. Fogel, ed. The Nanjing Massacre in History and Historiography
Reviewed by James J. Orr
pp. 423-425

Bonnie G. Smith, ed. Global Feminisms since 1945
Reviewed by Philip Nash
pp. 426-427

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