A visual interpretation for a spatial model of the social-ecological zones (wao kanaka, wao lā`au, wao nāhele, wao kele, wao akua) implemented during the aliʻi-era for the ahupuaʻa of Hāʻena, Haleleʻa, Kauaʻi. This model is being used by contemporary resource managers to inform large-scale biocultural conservation and forest restoration efforts within this social-ecological system (see Winter & Lucas, this issue for additional details; image credit: Ben Nyberg).
The October 2017 issue of Pacific Science begins with a Special Feature, which includes seven open-access articles available on Project MUSE and Bio-One.
Special Feature: Scaling Up Restoration Efforts in the Pacific Islands (Open-Access)
- Scaling Up Restoration Efforts in the Pacific Islands: A Call for Clear Management Objectives, Targeted Research to Minimize Uncertainty, and Innovative Solutions to a Wicked Problem by Melissa R. Price and Robert J. Toonen
- Estimating Cost-Effectiveness of Hawaiian Dry Forest Restoration Using Spatial Changes in Water Yield and Landscape Flammability under Climate Change by Christopher A. Wada, Leah L. Bremer, Kimberly Burnett, Clay Trauernicht, Thomas Giambelluca, Lisa Mandle, Elliott Parsons, Charlotte Weil, Natalie Kurashima, and Tamara Ticktin
- Monitoring Eradication of European Mouflon Sheep from the Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park by Seth W. Judge, Steven C. Hess, Jonathan K. Faford, Dexter Pacheco, and Christina R. Leopold
- I ka wä ma mua: The Value of a Historical Ecology Approach to Ecological Restoration in Hawai‘i by Natalie Kurashima, Jason Jeremiah, and Tamara Ticktin
- Spatial Modeling of Social-Ecological Management Zones of the Ali‘i Era on the Island of Kaua‘i, with Implications for Large-Scale Biocultural Conservation and Forest Restoration Efforts in Hawai‘i by Kawika B. Winter and Matthew Lucas
- Toward Cost-Effective Restoration: Scaling Up Restoration in Ecosystems Degraded by Nonnative Invasive Grass and Ungulates by Kelly B. Powell, Lisa M. Ellsworth, Creighton M. Litton, Kirsten L. L. Oleson, and Selita A. Ammondt
- Impacts of Endangered Seabirds on Nutrient Cycling in Montane Forest Ecosystems of Hawai‘i by Julia A. Rowe, Creighton M. Litton, Christopher A. Lepczyk, and Brian N. Popp
From Demography of Marine Turtles in the Nearshore Environments of the Northern Mariana Islands, an open access article in this issue. Clockwise from bottom left: nearshore capture locations in relation to benthic habitat of ( A) Saipan, (B) Tinian, and (C ) Rota, and (D) an image of the free diver hand capturing a juvenile green turtle. Green and orange dots depict capture locations for green and hawksbill turtles, respectively. Shading indicates benthic habitat.
This quarter’s issue of Pacific Science includes Demography of Marine Turtles in the Nearshore Environments of the Northern Mariana Islands, an open-access article; and an online-only supplemental for Methods for Measuring Bird-Mediated Seed Rain: Insights from a Hawaiian Mesic Forest.
The open-access article examines honu:
In the western Pacific, green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles are listed as Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Population data are limited for both species throughout the entire region and particularly in the Philippine Sea. This study characterizes size class distribution, growth rates, habitat use, behavior, diet, and site fidelity of foraging aggregations of green and hawksbill turtles in nearshore habitats of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI ). Between August 2006 and February 2014, we captured 642 turtles (493 green and 36 hawksbill turtles). … This is the first study within the CNMI to report on morphometric data and diet composition of marine turtles. These results provide an assessment of green and hawksbill turtle population demographics and habitat use in the CNMI.
Adult specimens of Eriocheir ogasawaraensis, endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, collected in March, 2004, in Chichi-jima, Ogasawara, Japan, in dorsal view: female, 82 mm in carapace width (upper), male, 81 mm in carapace width (lower). Kobayashi and Satake in this issue compare the morphology of this endemic crab to that of its ontinental congener, the Japanese mitten crab, Eriocheir japonica, finding differences in sexual dimorphism. Photo: Satoshi Kobayashi.
This quarterly issue of Pacific Science explores new research about Pacific crabs, fish, plankton, birds, grass, frogs, and eels.
The opening article examines fish in the aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. From the abstract:
Thirteen commonly consumed types of fish caught in the North Pacific and locally available in Hawai‘i were analyzed using gamma spectroscopy to measure Fukushima-derived and historic 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes. All fish samples had detectable 137Cs above 95% confidence intervals. Three out of the thirteen samples had 134Cs, an isotope indicative of Fukushima releases, detected above 95% confidence intervals. The highest 134Cs and 137Cs concentration in the examined species was in ‘ahi tuna, carrying 0.10 ± 0.04 Bq/ kg and 0.62 ± 0.05 Bq/ kg, respectively. Other samples with 134Cs activities found above their 2-sigma uncertainty were albacore tuna and swordfish. Historic and Fukushima-derived contributions were evaluated, and in several samples the Fukushima-derived radiocesium dominated the total radiocesium inventory with up to 61% contribution. All activities were below derived intervention limits of 1,200 Bq/ kg, and the doses to humans from consuming the fish attributable to radiocesium were 0.02 – 0.2 μ Sv, in comparison to 6 – 20 μ Sv contributed by the natural 40K present in the same fish.
Scholarly articles in this issue:
From ‘Range Expansion of the Small Carpenter Bee Ceratina smaragdula across the Hawaiian Archipelago with Potential Ecological Implications for Native Pollinator Systems’ in this issue. Female (left) and male (right) Ceratina (Pithitis) smaragdula: face, a, b; dorsal view, c, d; lateral view, e, f. Body length is between 6 and 8 mm on average. Note relatively prominent facial maculation and black abdominal patches of the male.
Preview Pacific Science, vol. 71 no. 1 with the following article free for all from Bio-One:
Also inside this quarter’s issue, Wyatt A. Shell examines small green carpenter bee range expansion in Hawai’i:
Invasive bee species may have a widely detrimental impact on their novel host ecosystem. Introduced bees can rapidly disrupt native plantpollinator mutualisms through competition with indigenous pollinator fauna and facilitation of invasive flora reproduction. […] Here we present a comprehensive synthesis of C. smaragdula’s known biological and ecological history, as well as a population genetic analysis of C. smaragdula from Maui, and from locations across its native range, at the cytochrome oxidase I (COI ) locus. We update C. smaragdula’s known distribution and occurrence elevation in Hawai‘i and reveal a lack of genetic structure between Hawaiian and native range populations.
Scholarly articles in this issue:
From Identity and Distribution of Introduced Slugs ( Veronicellidae) in the Hawaiian and Samoan Islands in this issue. Photographs and drawings of three veronicellid species dissected to show structures used to distinguish them. 1: Veronicella cubensis (representative specimen from Hawai‘i); 2: Laevicaulis alte (representative specimen from Hawai‘i); 3: Sarasinula plebeia [no live specimen was available for dissection; this illustration is of the “plesiotype” of Thomé (1971) in the Muséum nationale d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, mnhn 21307]. Key reproductive structures that differ among the species: a, penis; b, digitiform gland papilla; c, digitiform tubules.
Pacific Science, vol. 70 no. 4 is now available and contains the following articles:
- Spatial Scale, Genetic Structure, and Speciation of Hawaiian Endemic Yeasts by Marc-André Lachance, Julie D. Collens, Xiao Feng Peng, Alison M. Wardlaw, Lucie Bishop, Lily Y. Hou, and William T. Starmer
- Alien Insects Dominate the Plant-Pollinator Network of a Hawaiian Coastal Ecosystem by Kimberly Shay, Donald R. Drake, Andrew D. Taylor, Heather F. Sahli, Melody Euaparadorn, Michelle Akamine, Jennifer Imamura, Doug Powless, and Patrick Aldrich
- Avian Abundances on Yap, Federated States of Micronesia, after Typhoon Sudall by W. Douglas Robinson and Tara R. Robinson
- Habitat Use and Status of the Bokikokiko or Christmas Island Warbler (Acrocephalus aequinoctialis) by Eric A. VanderWerf, Ray Pierce, Ratita Bebe, and Katareti Taabu
- Temporal Variation in Macro-Moth Abundance and Species Richness in a Lowland Fijian Forest by Siteri Tikoca, Simon Hodge, Sarah Pene, John Clayton, Marika Tuiwawa, and Gilianne Brodie
- Seasonal Growth Fluctuations of Four Species of Neritid Gastropods in an Upper Mangrove Estuary, Ishigaki Island, Japan by Yoshitake Takada
- Identity and Distribution of Introduced Slugs (Veronicellidae) in the Hawaiian and Samoan Islands by Jaynee R. Kim, Kenneth A. Hayes, Norine W. Yeung, and Robert H. Cowie
- Eleotris bosetoi ( Teleostei: Gobioidei: Eleotridae), a New Species of Freshwater Fish from the Solomon Islands by Marion I. Mennesson, Philippe Keith, Brendan C. Ebner, and Philippe Gerbeaux
- First Record of Bryozoan Amathia (= Zoobotryon) verticillata (Bryozoa: Vesiculariidae) from Taiwan by Dan Minchin, Ta-Kang Liu, and Muhan Cheng
From article “Biology and Impacts of Pacific Islands Invasive Species,” in this issue. Mikania micrantha flower clusters (top left), seed clusters (top right), seeds (bottom left), and sprouting from a node (bottom right).
Pacific Science, vol. 70 no. 3 is now available and contains the following articles:
- Biology and Impacts of Pacific Islands Invasive Species. 13. Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae) by Michael D. Day, David R. Clements, Christine Gile, Wilmot K. A. D. Senaratne, Shicai Shen, Leslie A. Weston, and Fudou Zhang
- Trends in Marine Foraging in Precontact and Historic Leeward Kohala, Hawai‘i Island by Julie S. Field, Jacqueline N. Lipphardt, and Patrick V. Kirch
- Patterns of Floral Visitation to Native Hawaiian Plants in Presence and Absence of Invasive Argentine Ants by Heather F. Sahli, Paul D. Krushelnycky, Donald R. Drake, and Andrew D. Taylor
- Home Range Estimates of Feral Cats (Felis catus) on Rota Island and Determining Asymptotic Convergence by Brian T. Leo, James J. Anderson, Reese Brand Phillips, and Renee R. Ha
- Nutrient and Organic Matter Inputs to Hawaiian Anchialine Ponds: Influences of N-Fixing and Non-N-Fixing Trees by Kehauwealani K. Nelson-Kaula, Rebecca Ostertag, R. Flint Hughes, and Bruce D. Dudley
- Feasibility of Using Passive Integrated Transponder Technology for Studying the Ecology of Juvenile Striped Mullet (Mugil cephalus) in Streams by Kauaoa M. S. Fraiola and Stephanie M. Carlson
- Molecular Phylogeny, Revised Higher Classification, and Implications for Conservation of Endangered Hawaiian Leaf-Mining Moths (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Philodoria) by Chris A. Johns, Matthew R. Moore, and Akito Y. Kawahara
- Helminths of Five Species of Gonocephalus Lizards (Squamata: Agamidae) from Peninsular Malaysia by Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, and L. Lee Grismer
By U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service – Pacific Region
‘I’iwi on native mint in the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge.
Special Issue: Scaling up Restoration Efforts in the Pacific Regions
Pacific Science , a journal dedicated to biological and physical sciences, is calling for submissions to a special issue focusing on identifying challenges and solutions in the process of scaling up restoration efforts in the Pacific Islands. Continue reading