April 2015 issue of Pacific Science now available on BioOne
Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 11. Cinchona pubescens (Red Quinine Tree) (Rubiaceae)
Heinke Jäger, 133
Abstract: Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red quinine) is an evergreen tree ranging in height from 10 to 25 m with broad leaves and white or pink fragrant flowers arranged in clusters. Growing at altitudes between 130 and 3,300 m, it is one of 23 species in the genus Cinchona and has a natural distribution from Costa Rica to Bolivia. Cinchona pubescens has been cultivated in tropical regions (e.g., in South America, Africa, China, India, and Indonesia) for its quinine-containing bark and has become invasive in some regions. This is especially the case in the Pacific region, where C. pubescens has invaded humid highland areas of Galápagos, Hawai‘i, and Tahiti. It shades out and reduces cover of native plant species and adversely affects endemic birds. In addition, it changes microclimate and nutrient cycling in the soil, especially phosphorus, in Galápagos. Characteristics that make it such a successful invader include production of numerous, windborne seeds and vigorous vegetative reproduction by resprouting from underground stems and fallen trees. In Galápagos, C. pubescens is currently being manually controlled by uprooting the trees and by applying herbicides to cuts in the bark. However, this method requires continuous hand pulling of seedlings to be successful. Disturbance by control actions appears to facilitate establishment and invasion by other nonnative plant species, especially blackberry (Rubus niveus). Quinine and other alkaloids extracted from Cinchona bark are still being used for medicinal purposes today and the wood is increasingly used as construction material in Galápagos. Ironically, C. pubescens is now considered rare and endangered in its native range in Ecuador.
Guest Editor’s Introduction
Richard D. McBride II, 5
The six articles in this special issue explore aspects of the history of Pure Land Buddhism in Korea. Two essays deal with the Three Kingdoms and Silla periods, two papers treat topics in the Koryŏ period, and the final two articles break new ground in the Chosŏn period. Several articles reveal a close relationship between Pure Land practices and the Hwaŏm tradition, which was the dominant doctrinal school during the middle and late periods of Silla (ca. 668–935) and was the most influential intellectual tradition at court in the Koryŏ period (918–1392).
The Pacific Islands (map)
About the Artist: Fatu Feu‘u
Katherine Higgins, VI
Vulnerable Islands: Climate Change, Tectonic Change, and Changing Livelihoods in the Western Pacific
John Connell, 1
Small Pacific islands, especially atolls, have been widely argued to be in the forefront of climate change. Recent degradation of island environments has primarily been attributed to the impact of sea-level rise. However, physical changes to several small islands can be linked to a range of physical influences and to human modification. La Niña events, cyclones, and wind waves have caused localized flooding and storm damage. Most atoll islands have not significantly changed in size, as deposition balances erosion. Many islands have experienced broadly similar environmental problems in earlier times, at different scales, and over different time periods, now accentuated by human pressures on scarce land areas and resources. Local human factors (including construction and mining), tectonic subsidence, and La Niña events have created some iconic sites that have become symbols of sea-level rise, sometimes erroneously attributed solely to global warming. Limited economic prospects in most small islands, rising expectations, and growing populations have contributed to a culture of migration, marked by international migration and urbanization, that has diversified impoverished livelihoods, extended island geographies, and resulted in accentuated population concentrations. Contemporary climate change exacerbates present environmental changes, stimulates further migration, and points to diasporic futures.
Keywords: atolls, climate change, sea level, tectonics, urbanization, migration
David R. McCann, ix
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:
Once again, readers will discover a rich and varied array of contemporary Korean literary and image work in the current issue of Azalea journal. We celebrate the 100th anniversary of the births of two of the twentieth century’s great Korean writers, Midang Sŏ Chŏngju, the poet, and Hwang Sunwŏn, the short story and novel writer. Periodically, as the cultural, political, and historical tides in Korea have fallen and risen only to fall and rise again, these two writers have been lionized, denigrated, taken as emblems of Korea’s literary capabilities and accomplishments, or set to the side as passé, out-of-sync, politically unacceptable, or just too old to matter. Yet readers will find a rich array of reflections on these two writers and examples of their literary accomplishments. May you savor and treasure. Let us resolve to keep these writers central to our understanding of the terrain that Korean literature traversed in the twentieth century and to comprehend how much it would lose if it did not value, even treasure, these and others in the twenty-first.
June 2015: 3 new articles and 2 book reviews added to
Volume 9 available here: http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/ldc/?p=603
Greetings from the LD&C team
On Training in Language Documentation and Capacity Building in Papua New Guinea: A Response to Bird et al.
Joseph D. Brooks, pp. 1–9
In a recent article, Bird et al. (2013) discuss a workshop held at the University of Goroka in Papua New Guinea (PNG) in 2012. The workshop was intended to offer a new methodological framework for language documentation and capacity building that streamlines the documentation process and accelerates the global effort to document endangered languages through machine translation and automated glossing technology developed by computer scientists. As a volunteer staff member at the workshop, in this response to Bird et al. I suggest that it did not in the end provide us with a model that should be replicated in the future. I explain how its failure to uphold fundamental commitments from a documentary linguistic and humanistic perspective can help inform future workshops and large-scale documentary efforts in PNG. Instead of experimenting with technological shortcuts that aim to reduce the role of linguists in language documentation and that construct participants as sources of data, we should implement training workshops geared toward the interests and skills of local participants who are interested in documenting their languages, and focus on building meaningful partnerships with academic institutions in PNG.
Trekking through Modern Chinese Literary History with Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal
Mabel Lee, 509
The First Century of the U.S.–China Philanthropic Partnership: Impetuses, Obstacles, Strategies, and Contributions
Qinghong Wang, 513
The Unification of Ancient Chinese Philosophy: Fischer on the Shizi
James D. Sellmann, 521
Ritual in Early China: Meaning, Practice, Function, and Context
Philip J. Ivanhoe, 530
Questioning Modern Chinese Views of Temporality in Context of Comparative Philosophy
Lin Shaoyang, 543
Editors’ Note, 1
Mapping Local Perspectives in the Historical Archaeology of Vanuatu Mission Landscapes
James L. Flexner, 2
The concept of place is a powerful theoretical tool in the social sciences and humanities, which can be especially useful in archaeological work that involves community-based collaboration. Using place as a starting point, archaeologists can beneficially use their skills to answer questions that are of relevance to the local communities with which we work while also advancing knowledge about the past. For historical archaeology, this often involves engaging in dialogue across multiple lines of evidence, including material remains from the past, written documents, and local oral traditions. Recent fieldwork on the islands of Erromango and Tanna, Vanuatu, exploring early landscapes relating to Christian conversion uses this kind of approach. A major part of preliminary survey work involves mapping features in the mission sites and surrounding areas. Archaeological cartographic techniques help build a sense of place that provides engaging research for a collaborative environment with local Melanesian communities, while also producing new perspectives on colonialism in the South Pacific. This approach is not limited to the recent past, being applicable to any collaborative, community-based archaeological research that incorporates the use of oral traditions.
Melanesia, historical archaeology, Vanuatu, missions, landscape archaeology, mapping, oral traditions, community archaeology